Guatemala

Background

Women in Guatemala represent 51.2% of the total 15.8 million, estimated for 2014. After the signing of the Peace Accords in 1996 several mechanisms specifically for women were created (DEMI and SEPREM); laws were issued (women’s comprehensive development, domestic violence, sexual violence, trafficking and exploitation, femicide and other forms of violence); policies were drafted (National policy for the promotion and comprehensive development of women - PNPDIM). Despite these advances only 2% of the municipalities are run by women; more than 4,000 girls 10-14 years of age give birth every year; and 759 women died by violence in 2013.

Guatemala has an area of 108,889 km2, 51.5% of the population lives in rural areas. In 2009 the fertility rate was 3.6, the annual population growth is 2.5%, and this is equivalent to double the rate of Latin American and the Caribbean (1.2%). The modern contraceptive prevalence rate is 44%; this does not respond to the needs of 20.8% of women with regard to family planning and this figure doubles among indigenous women.

Guatemala has a population that is predominantly young – the average age of women is 26 and men 25 years (ENEI, 2013). The productive age rate is 54.1% (15-64 years). Fertility rate is 66.7 live births per 1,000 adolescent girls aged 13 – 19; 1 in 5 of live births is in girls and adolescents; maternal mortality rate is 140 per 100,000 live births (ECLAC) and life expectancy is 75 years for women and 68 for men (INE 2013). The HIV epidemic is considered to be concentrated in Guatemala; women represent 38% of the adults living with HIV. The prevalence is expected to rise 0.89% in 2015, the majority of which will be girls 10-14 years and adolescents 15-24.

The country has 24 linguistic groups and 4 peoples groups: Maya, Garifuna, Xinca and Mestizo or Ladino. According to the last three population census (1981 -2002), the indigenous population is 43% of the total population. Guatemala has a strong history of discrimination of indigenous populations in general and women in particular. In 2011 illiteracy rate among indigenous women was 48% and men 25%, compared to non-indigenous women 19% and men 11%; this numbers show high levels of social exclusion. Access to formal means of financial resources, health services and education are still limited. The full involvement of women in economic development is being limited by the territorial, ethnic and gender interconnected inequalities. Exclusion and racism have produced structural, legal and institutionalized forms of violence and discrimination that deepen in the case of indigenous women, particularly in those who live in rural areas. Added to this are weak State institutions in charge of sustainable development and economic growth.

According to the World Bank, in 2013 Guatemala was among the group of low-medium income countries, with a nominal gross domestic product (GDP) of USD 53,796 million and a per capita national income of USD 2,341 (prices as of 2005). Historically the GDP national growth was modest – 3.5% - with a high and persistent “extreme inequality” income (Gini index of 0.57) in the last two decades. Despite the efforts made through public policies, when compared to countries with similar per capita income, Guatemala continues among the countries with the highest poverty index in Latin America and the Caribbean: 53.7% poverty and 13.3% extreme poverty (ENCOVI 2011). According to the Human Development Index (HDI), Guatemala is classified in the group of countries with medium human development level, with a 0.628 average in 2013 (0.596 for women and 0.655 for men), occupying position 125 of 187 countries. The Gender Inequality Index for the same year gave Guatemala a 0.523 index. Data from the National Maternal and Child Health Survey (ESMI 2088/2009) resulted in 52% chronic malnutrition in children less than five years, mainly affecting children in rural areas (58.6%), and indigenous population (65.9%).

The mean years of schooling in Guatemalans over the age of 15 is 6.5 years (INE 2011). In the metropolitan area, the average level of education is 8 years, this contrasts with the rural area with only a 4 year schooling average. Indigenous women only account for 3 years of schooling, non-indigenous women 5.3 years; compared to indigenous vs non-indigenous men 4.2 and 5.9 respectively. The country has made significant progress in the Gender Parity Index in enrolment rates at all levels of education: primary 0.93, secondary 0.86 and tertiary 0.99 (MINEDUC 2013), but the quality and coverage area are still a challenge in the country especially for indigenous women in secondary education. University education is the more restricted level of education, with only 12% of the population attending, even though today more women graduate than men, especially in the Humanistic Studies field with 70% of the students being women (SEPREM 2013). Guatemala is highly vulnerable to natural disasters, with negative social impact especially in the agricultural field, housing, highway and bride infrastructure, as well as in the economy and environment. The country classification related to GDP vulnerability to natural disasters places it among the five countries with highest risk in the world, 83.3% of the GDP is produced in high-risk areas (ECLAC 2011). Some studies have shown that the loss produced by natural disasters affects directly the more vulnerable populations, elderly, women – especially indigenous women – children and particularly those who live in poor rural areas.

After 36 years of internal armed conflict, a new phase for the political arena opens up in 1996 with the signing of the Peace Accords and a new agenda for building a more inclusive country. During the negotiations, of the 22 negotiators two were women; one of them signed the Peace Accords (11 signatories in total). It’s the first Peace Accord in Latin America to recognize violence against women and created specific mechanisms for indigenous women (DEMI) and to institutionalise peace.

The Guatemalan Commission for Historical Clarification (CHC) found that sexual violence was prevalent during the three decades of the conflict. The CHC recognizes that the figures on sexual violence are underestimated in relation to other human rights violations, and reports that 2.38% of all the 42,275 registered human rights violations correspond to sexual violence. Only 285 cases of the 1,465 reported at the time, could be documented by the Commission. The demand of the women for transforming justice embodied in the 2008 Huehuetenango Declaration, concluded in 2011 with the First Court of Conscience On Sexual Violence Against Women in Guatemala. This Court sanctioned, as a message of impunity and permissiveness, the lack of diligence to investigate and prosecute sex crimes and the absence of policies to prevent them. In 2014, the Sepur Zarco sexual slavery case reached the judicial phase in the national court, this is a historic moment being the first case of this nature to come to trial.

Notwithstanding the documented progress of the implementation, many of the commitments are still pending and their validity as a social pact continues to be weak. High levels of social conflict continue in Guatemala today as a result of the exclusions of the past, a weak state presence and response, lack of legal certainty of land and property ownership, polarization of ideas borne from the armed conflict and in some other cases the difference of opinion in which development model to adopt in the exploitation of natural resources. Regarding social conflict, the Special Rapporteur on Indigenous Peoples, James Anaya, concluded that in the country there is a lack of respect, of the collective rights of the indigenous peoples, when they are not consulted about the process of mining exploration and exploitation.

Violence against women, this situation has been a continuum in the history of Guatemala and gender violence was perpetuated as a tool of submission and control on women’s bodies and lives, this also based in the patriarchal and conservative culture added to a fragile security and legal system that breeds impunity.

Guatemala ranks among the countries with the highest rate of violent deaths among women (9.7 in 100,000). In 2013, according to data from the National Institute of Forensic Sciences (INACIF), 748 women lost their lives to violence, a 10% increase compared to 2012, this gives an average of 2 death per day; violent deaths in men even if they are 10 times higher they had a noticeable decrease. Since coming in to effect in 2008, of the Law against Femicide and other Forms of Violence against Women, the number of criminal complaints has increased. In 2012, the Public Prosecutor’s Office, reported 51,790 complaints of violence against women this makes it the crime with more criminal complaints, in 2013 56,000 were reported. Violence against women complaints in 2012 only 2,260 complaints (6.4%) resulted in accusations; the Judicial Branch ruled on 473 sentences in violence against women. The impunity rate in general has decreased slowly; however in femicide it still persists and is estimated in 98%. Violence at the hands of their intimate partner o former partner, including sexual violence, is the experience that will have a more lasting effect on the life of women, especially if they are young women.

Through the Judicial system efforts have been made to address violence against women and stop the impunity levels related to it, specialized victim’s care, investigation and criminal prosecution units have been set up and also jurisprudential bodies. From January to June 2013, 38 femicides were reported and 19 firm sentences were issued by the specialized courts. Of the 95 cases heard on regular courts only 5 firm sentences were issued, and a total of 21 convictions. The Judiciary Body still has a lot to achieve due to the fact that the regular courts don´t have the right approach to cases of violence against women and the specialized courts have limited coverage.

The Labor market characterizes by unequal relations between men and women. According to data gathered by the ENEI 2013, 64% of the working-age population is economically active population (EAP), with a male labor force participation of 83% contrasting with 40% for women. Women work mainly in commerce (39%), informal economic activities were they don´t have Social Security. Of the total women’s labor force (169,000) approximately 7.2% work as household employees and are not covered by adequate laws, which allows for salaries below the standard minimum wage and they are not subscribed to the Social Security system, more than 80% are indigenous women. Women report that they work less in agriculture (10.2%) while men mainly work in agriculture (43%), and to a lesser extent in commercial activities (22.9%). Women´s wages represents 78% of the men’s wage average (ENEI 2014), the gaps are wider when considering urban or rural areas and indigenous women. In some regions, women’s work in agricultural activities, specially for indigenous women, is not compensated it`s considered a part of the men´s income. Women dedicate 6.1 hours of their day to non-compensated labor that contributes to the family’s wellbeing and society´s development; and 7.5 hours to paid labor; this contrasts with men dedicating 2.6 hours to non-compensated labor and 8.6 hours to paid labor, this becomes a work overload for women (ENCOVI, 2011). Women’s unemployment is 4.6% and men’s 2.4%.

According to the National Maternal and Child Health Survey – ENSMI (2008 – 2009), women report these forms of violence in the last 12 months: verbal 21.6%, physical 7.8%, sexual 4.8%; at least one of the three 23.4%. Nationally the INACIF performed 23,101 evaluations on sexual crimes from 2009 to 2013 (90% women). In 2013 the National Civilian Police – PNC responded to a total of 11,720 cases of violence against women and 4,702 cases of domestic violence. From 2008 to 2012 a total of 20,397 women survivors of violence have been care for in five Comprehensive Care Centers for Women Survivors of Violence – CAIMUS.

The 2008 – 2009 ESMI asked men if his wife or partner needed to ask his permission to perform certain activities, this is intimately linked to key aspects of women’s independence. A total of 81.6% answered that they needed to ask permission to leave the house, 58.9% that they required asking for the use of contraceptives; 67.0% for managing the household money and 77.8% to perform other activities (like work or study outside the house). These answers were more frequent in residents of rural areas, 33.5%; in the northwest part of the country 49.1%; indigenous men 36.2%; with lower educational levels 39.4% and in the lowest economic quintile 44.3%. However, a 10% positive response in the highest economic quintile should be cause for concern. Additionally, 82.7% of men answered that family problems should only be discussed with family members and 49.2% believed that a man needs to show that he is the one who is in command of the household. These limitations affect the way women address health care, maternal mortality, infant morbidity and mortality, malnutrition; as well as contact with family and their financial independence.

Girls and boys are also subject to violence. According to the Public Prosecutor’s Office (MP), the crime with more prevalence against children and adolescents is “abuse against minors”. The country has one of the highest rates of girl and adolescent pregnancy in the Central and Latin American Region. Trends in pregnancies as a result of sexual violence in girls 10-14 years are: 1,634 in 2010; 1,076 in 2011; 3,644 2012; 2,906 from January to June 2013. Incest is a practice that is invisible but prevalent in Guatemalan patriarchal culture. Girl and adolescent pregnancy has been made visible in the last years with government and civil society support and participation.

During the administration of President Otto Pérez Molina, actions related to peace, security, justice, economic empowerment and poverty eradication continue being a priority. The government has launched the National Policy on Violence and Crime Prevention, Citizen Security and Peaceful Coexistence (2014-2034). This policy includes prevention of violence against women. The Public Prosecutor’s Office, the Supreme Court of Justice (CSJ) and the Judicial Body (OJ) have agreed to follow up on monitoring the observance of women’s human rights within their institutions, both through their gender policy as well as through the strengthening of the courts specialized on femicide. UNWOMEN has given support to the MP-OJ Joint Strategy to expand women’s access to justice (2014).

Political Participation, for the 2011 elections 7, 340,841 were registered voters, 51% were women, showing a 46.9% increase from the 2007 registry. As a result of this, women accounted for 69.3% of the voters. The most significant change was the participation of 6 women candidates as part of the 11 presidential nominations, two of them indigenous women, three were presidential candidates and three candidates to the vice-presidency. For the first time in Guatemalan political history a woman was elected to the Vice-presidency. To date no woman has been elected as President, but they have been elected to preside the Judicial and Legislative Branches of Government.

Other results of the 2011 elections were that only 18 women (14.1%) won seats in Congress (of 158 available). The number of indigenous candidates, men and women, was 22 with only three women (1.9%). These figures show the gaps and asymmetries in gender and ethnicity that are a characteristic of the National Congress, a sign of exclusion and racism that are part of the Guatemalan society and political system. Representation of women at the local level, in the 2011 elections only 7 women were elected as Major (from a total of 333 municipalities). A more positive experience was the representation to the Central American Parliament (PARLACEN), 6 of the 20 Guatemalan seats were won by women, and this is equivalent to 30%. As a result of the cohesion and work of the women parliamentarians, one of them was elected President to the PARLACEN in 2014. Guatemala has not passed any laws or other affirmative measures regarding the political participation of women. The Constitutional Court passed a favorable opinion on the Reform to the Electoral and Political Parties Law, the final approval to this initiative is pending.

The National Development Councils System, CODEDES, is the main channel to conduct public affairs in the democratic process of planning development, taking into account the principles of national unity and of Guatemala as a multicultural, multiethnic and multilingual nation. The political participation of women at this local level, according to official data for 2009, 190 women were part of the CODEDES (53 indigenous women) along with 881 men. Women’s participation is still in minor seats with no decision taking responsibilities.

In the Executive Branch women directed only 3 of the 14 ministries in 2012 (21.4%). Data from the CENADOJ for the year 2013 women’s participation in the Judicial Body was 36.4%. During the 2009-2014 period, the Supreme Court had only one woman Justice of 13 magistrates, she presided the Court in 2011 - 2012. In 2014 this magistrate was given the charge of General attorney presiding the Public Prosecutor's Office, she had a woman as predecessor. Additionally, Public Criminal Defender’s Office is headed by a woman. In 2014 a new Supreme Electoral Tribunal was formed with low representation of women, only one woman was elected among 5 magistrates. In the previous Judiciary there were three women and one of them presided.

Institutional level, it is necessary to strengthen the main mechanisms for women, especially in the implementation of their mandate, coordination with other public offices and monitoring of national policies. The Presidential Secretariat for Women (SEPREM) is the advisory and coordinating entity for public policies to promote the comprehensive development of Guatemalan women. The Office for the Defense of Indigenous Women (DEMI) was set up to promote the full realization of their rights and contribute to the eradication of all forms of violence against indigenous women. Other institutions are the Ombudsman’s office for the defense of women; Gender Units in each of the Ministries; and the Vice-President’s Special Cabinet for Women (GEM), with 17 member institutions. Special attention will be given to the Municipal Offices for Women – OMM – to respond to women’s demands at the municipal level and responsible for the promotion of women’s participation and development planning.

Women’s organizations have a strong participation and incidence in the drafting of public policies and in monitoring the national budget, and also national policies on women. Regarding indigenous women organizations it includes the Articulated Agenda on Mayan, Garifunas and Xinka Women; they contributed to strengthen the National Policy for the Promotion and Comprehensive Development of Women and other sectoral policies. Globally, a recent historic process was developed, the global consensus for indigenous women and the definition of the Political Positioning Document and Action Plan for the World’s Indigenous Women 2014 – 2015, this constitutes a guide for articulating the demands and proposals, as well as a reference for other global processes like the World Conference on Indigenous Peoples 2014. Really significant has been the participation of several women and indigenous organization in preparing Cairo +20, Beijing +20 and the Post 2015 Development Agenda.

Proposed Program

UN Women Guatemala’s Program is aligned with UN Women’s Global Strategic Plan 2014-2017 and UNDAF Guatemala 2015-2019, as well as the legal and public policy framework for Guatemala, especially the National Policy for the Promotion and Comprehensive Development of Women – PNPDIM 2008 – 2023 – National Development Plan K’atun: Our Guatemala 2032.

The general objective is guarantee women’s rights through empowerment, facilitating their participation and to reap benefits from the national development process. The program aims to strengthen national capacities to comply with institutional obligations regarding the rights of women, in line with international conventions and standards. It will also support coordination and develop partnerships among the different women’s organizations in order to dialog with the government, adopt laws and implement public policies in favor of women’s empowerment and gender equality, particularly indigenous women and women living in rural areas, supporting the generation of knowledge and giving technical assistance.

Social mobilization and advocacy will help secure a favorable environment for women so they can fully develop their potential, it will also enable to recognize, promote and support the valuable contribution women are to the economy (paid and unpaid work) and in decision making processes. The program proposes to increase women’s access to other programs who will give support to their economic ventures, securing sustainable incomes and raising quality of life; also enable them participation in decisions that affect their lives and communities. Comprehensive programs to prevent violence against women and girls help them reduce the obstacles they face to participate as equals in the labor market, get education and in the public sphere. Assure access to specialized centers will help women raise their self-esteem and give comprehensive care to women survivors of VAW, give them new opportunities including financial options to handle their own resources. Access to justice will increase and impunity reduced if judges are better trained and a system is set up to supervise the outcomes of the implementation of the specialized courts. The sustainability of all these actions will be assured through a comprehensive approach and interaction between women’s political, financial and physical independence for the exercise of a full citizenship. Given the post-conflict nature of the Guatemalan State empowering women contributes to solidify peace and respect of women’s human rights, and assure a sustainable progress in line with what was established in the Peace Accords.

The Program includes five components:

Women, Peace, Security & Humanitarian Response component will continue giving support, according to their nature, to justice and security institutions towards the implementation of the reforms for gender equality, to increase women’s participation in decision making positions, training staff on the rights of women, and promote better services for women. These include the Public Prosecutor's Office, Judicial Body and the National Civilian Police. It will also continue strengthening the capacities in the national courts to prosecute cases of women survivors and victims of violence during the armed conflict. Additionally, support will be given to the implementation of a National Plan of Action, in accordance with Resolution 1325 and others linked to the United Nations Security Council, ensuring the participation of women in conflict prevention and resolution and emergency preparedness and response. Given the post-conflict nature of the Guatemalan State a follow up is needed on the Peace Accords related to women, contributing to the consolidation of peace and respect for human rights. To face the new challenges that affect women like crime, social conflicts and organized crime, it also includes strengthening the security and justice sector.

Women’s Political and Citizen Participation component will give support to the advocacy efforts done by civil society to promote women’s participation as candidates for public office in two elections: 2015 and 2019. It will also strengthen the capacities of the Electoral Institute to work with of women’s democratic, political and citizen participation at the national and municipal level. Through a specialized unit accompany the efforts of the Supreme Electoral Tribunal to integrate gender perspective to the activities planned. Support the analysis of legislative bill proposals that eliminate barriers that prevent women from exercising their citizenship; reinforce political skills and negotiation capacity of women leaders, especially the young and indigenous to form a critical mass; generate knowledge that makes visible the obstacles to women’s participation. Women’s participation in local decision making processes will be supported through the National Development Councils System and the Municipal Offices for Women – OMM – to increase local investment and implementation of projects for women. The main allies and partners are the Supreme Electoral Tribunal, National Congress, women’s organizations from civil society, Presidential Secretariat for Women – SERPREM – and the Office for the Defense of Indigenous Women.

Economic Empowerment, this component continues support of the development of policies that will promote economic and labor rights of women. It will also join efforts to develop social protection programs with gender perspective that contribute to women´s economic empowerment, as well as the implementation of development programs designed for women entrepreneurs, promoting a holistic approach to strengthen the productive, trade, and personal capacities of women, especially in rural areas. Support knowledge creation on the share women bring to the economy, analysis of macroeconomic policies and their impact on formal and informal labor markets, and provide input for national policies. This component will work with the Ministry of Economy and Agriculture, the National Institute for Statistics (INE) and SERPREM. It will seek alliances with different actors from the economic sector to adhere the private sector to the seven principles of women’s empowerment (WEPs). At the inter-agency level it will support mainstreaming a gender perspective in initiatives for growth, inclusive development and food safety.

Given the high rates of violence against women, UN Women will work a new component to support actions that prevent and respond to the violence against women and girls. In accordance with national policies support the development and implementation of national and local plans against violence. Promote a zero tolerance culture towards violence against women and girls through mobilization of key partners, including UN agencies. Provide technical assistance to increase the delivery quality of comprehensive care services, for women survivors, by state institutions and NGOs, and it will support reference networks to ensure access to justice. This component also includes data analysis and evaluation of the implementation of policies and laws that aim to reduce high rates of impunity that characterize crimes against women. The program will work towards the integration of the responses from the Ministry of Interior, SEPREM, DEMI and institutions and organization that are part of the National Council for the prevention of violence – CONAPREVI, the networks and organizations of civil society specialized in the issues to assure sustainability and to lead the inter-agency efforts of the UN system to prevent violence against women and girls. It will continue joining the efforts to integrate the gender perspective and address gender violence in the HIV interagency group.

The International Standards component will continue centered around strengthening national institutions, women’s movement and indigenous women organizations in intergovernmental processes like CSW, post 2015 Agenda, Beijing +20, World Conference on Indigenous Peoples, as well as the dissemination and follow up of the resulting recommendations of these forums. This includes strengthening women’s institutions especially SEPREM, DEMI, Special Cabinet for Women (GEM), and gender units on the implementation of the National Policy for the promotion and comprehensive development of women (PNPDIM) 2008 – 2023. It will also support monitoring and drafting of national and alternative reports on the advances made in the implementation of the CEDAW recommendations and other human rights frameworks on women like the Universal Periodic Review; and the preparedness of the official delegations to international events.

It is important to highlight the systemic-strategic approach of the five-year program through the coordination and interaction of the different areas. Assurances will be made so that the rights of indigenous women are addressed as a cross-cutting strategy and that strategic investment in them is prioritized as agents of change. A three tier strategy will be developed to strengthen capacities, it will include: 1) strengthen public institutions according to their mandate, 2) promote women’s participation at the local level, and 3) monitor public policies and the situation of women. The program will highlight the coordinating role of UN Women among the other UN System agencies as a way to contribute jointly to the comprehensive development of women, guarantee continuity, broadening and strengthening of the advances made so far in policies, plans and actions. Finally a communication strategy/PI will be set in motion in each program to: 1) advice and support the advocacy efforts for the empowerment of women and gender equality; 2) increase visibility of UN Women’s contributions, and 3) increase public conscience about gender equality goals.

UN Women manages its program through direct implementation, which gives it direct responsibility of their activities’ implementations, establishing consensus with its public sector partners through MOUs or letters requesting cooperation and specific work plans. It also subscribes cooperation agreements with NGOs.

Partnerships

UN Women Guatemala has established partnerships with several UN agencies, other donors and national and international NGOs. To promote women’s political participation and to accompany the Supreme Electoral Tribunal important partnerships will be established nationally with the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), Netherlands Institute for multiparty Democracy (NIMD) and the National Democratic Institute for International Affairs (NDI). UN Women has established partnership with Butterfly Wings and Civic Political Convergence (MOLOJ) to advocate for a greater number of women occupying decision making positions. NIMD is a strong partner to work with locally in a campaign to promote women’s participation. UN Women works in collaboration with UNDP to strengthen the capacities of indigenous women organizations. In collaboration with UNICER, UNFPA, PAHO and UNESCO, and other donors, including Canada and United Kingdom, we will continue the efforts to prevent child marriage, empowerment of indigenous girls, prevent pregnancies in girls under 14 years of age, and also a new alliance to empower indigenous women.

In the area for economic empowerment of women, UN Women will join efforts with WFP, FAO and IFAD to strengthen gender policies in the Ministry of Agriculture, as well as the economic empowerment of women and food security. Within the Global Compact Framework a partnership will be established with UNDP to promote the adherence of the private sector to the women’s empowerment principles. The organized private sector, especially the Chambers of Commerce, are strategic allies for the promotion of WEPs as well as towards strengthening the capacities of rural women entrepreneurs. With UNDP, UNICEF and UNFPA, continue engaging in advocacy for public policies with gender perspective, including social protection. In collaboration with ILO, UNDP and OHCHR to promote Convention 189. Other main cooperation agreements are with Sweden and Norway.

Regarding VAW eradication, there is a process to establish an Alliance with GIZ (German Cooperation) to promote local prevention campaigns and municipal dialogs. Other actions to prevent VAW and activities linked to the last year of the UNITE campaign will be addressed together with UNFPA, PAHO/OMS, UNICEF, and OHCHR. The main donor relations include Spain.

Women, Peace and Security, continue work in partnership with Impunity Watch and the Training Institute for Sustainable Development (IEPADES) to develop a National Action Plan for the implementation of Resolution 1325 and advocate for the needs of women with the National Coordinator of Widows of Guatemala (CONAVIGUA). In collaboration with UNFPA and the Centre for Research, Training and Support of Women, efforts will be made towards increasing women’s access to justice and better knowledge of service providers; with UNDP and Lawyers without borders - LWOB – to strengthen national capacities in research and pursue human rights violations of women, particularly sexual violence in armed conflict and post-conflict; together with the Artisan Collective and UNODC, continue monitoring standards of women in detention, and with UNICEF monitor the situation of their children. To monitor the implementation of the recommendations provided by human rights entities, an alliance was established with OHCHR to strengthen the capacities of the Ombudsman Office, and to reinforce the institutional framework of women and civil society. The main cooperation relationships include the Peace Building Fund (PBF) Department of State and Justice Rapid Response (JRR).

UN Women will continue the promotion of partnerships with women’s organizations to join in the advocacy efforts made by civil society, such as Women’s Sector, Women’s Political Agenda: Women in Diversity, March 8th Coordinating Committee, November 25th Coordinating Committee, No Violence Against Women Network (REDNOVI), Beijing +20 Commission, and the Association of Women Domestic and Garment Factory Workers (ATRAHDOM), among others. Other partnerships with the private sector include the Rafael Landivar University (URL), the Women’s University Institute of San Carlos University (IUMUSAC); Guatemalan Exporter Association (AGEXPRONT), and other private enterprises with a social responsibility focus. The Civil Society Advisory Group (GASC) has contributed to strengthen the relationship with civil society and has produced valuable inputs for future actions and this Strategic Plan. Within the framework for the HeforShe Campaign new partnerships will be established with groups of women living with HIV; faith based organizations and men committed to the issue.

Finally, UN Women has developed a Partnership strategy with the Media to position priority issues at the Country office level as well as with the Regional and Global Office.